Antifungal Activity of Triterpenoids and Steroids Isolated from Pinus merkusii Bark Against Phanerochaete chrysosporium

Masendra Masendra, Brandon Arsito Verick Purba, Ganis Lukmandaru


The outer part of a tree, known as the bark, protects the internal tissues from external conditions and attacks from microorganisms. Its antifungal activities are due to the presence of chemicals in this bark. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of triterpenoids and steroids from the bark of Pinus merkusii against Phanerochaete chrysosporium (white-rot). The triterpenoids and steroids were isolated from n-hexane extract of the bark through column chromatography. Then, the antifungal activity was evaluated by measuring the growth rate of the fungus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in a Petri dish. The isolation resulted in three triterpenoids (3β- methoxyserratt-14-en-21-one, serrate-14-en-3β,21β –diol, 3α,21β- dimethoxy-D14-serratene) and two steroids (β-sitosterol, Stigmast-4-en-3-one). There was more of antifungal activity with β-sitosterol and serrate-14-en-3β,21β –diol, due to presence of hydroxyl bond and their hydrophobicity.


Pinus merkusii; bark; steroids; triterpenoids; antifungal; white-rot

Full Text:



Alfredsen G., Solheim H., Slimestad R. 2008. “Antifungal Effect of Bark Extracts from Some European Tree Species.” European Journal of Forest Research 127:387–93.

Kiprono P.C., Kaberia F., Keriko J.M., Karanja J.N. 2014. “The in vitro Anti-Fungal and Anti-Bacterial Activities of β-Sitosterol from Senecio lyratus (Asteraceae).” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 55(5-6): 485–8.

Konuk H.B., Ergüden B. 2020. “Phenolic –OH Group is Crucial for the Antifungal Activity of Terpenoids Via Disruption of Cell Membrane Integrity”. Folia Microbiologica

Lin C.Y, Wu C.L., Chang S.T. 2007. “Evaluating the Potency of Cinnamaldehyde as a Natural Wood Preservative.” International Research Group Wood Preservation, Sweden IRG/WP 07-30444.

Lomelί-Ramίrez M.G., Dȃvila-Soto H., Silva-Guzmȃn J., Ruίz H.G.O., Garcίa-Enriquez S. 2016. “Fungitoxic Potential of Extracts of Four Pinus spp. Bark to Inhibit Fungus Trametes versicolor (L. ex. Fr) Pilȃt.” BioResources 11(4):10575-84.

Lukmandaru G. 2013. “Antifungal Activities of Certain Components of Teak Wood Extractives.” Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Kayu Tropis 11(1):11-8.

Masendra, Ashitani T., Takahashi K., Susanto M, Lukmandaru G. 2018a. “Lipophilic Extractives of Inner and Outer Barks from Six Different Pinus Species Grown in Indonesia.” Journal of Forestry Research 29(5):1329-36.

Masendra, Ashitani T., Takahashi K., Lukmandaru G. 2018b. “Triterpenoids and Steroids from the Bark of Pinus merkusii (Pinaceae).” BioResources 13(3):6160-6170.

Masendra, Ashitani T., Takahashi K., Susanto M, Lukmandaru G. 2019. “Hydrophilic Extracts of the Bark from Six Pinus Species”. Journal of The Korean Wood Science and Technology 47(1):80-89.

Özgenç Ö., Durmaz S., Yildiz ÜC., Erişir E. 2017. “A Comparison Between some Wood Bark Extracts: Antifungal Activity.” Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 17(3):502-8.

Seki K., Orihashi K., Sato M., Kishino M., Saito N. 2012. “Accumulation of Constitutive Diterpenoids in the Rhytidome and Secondary Phloem of the Branch Bark of Larix gmelinii Var. Japonica.” Journal of Wood Science 58:437-45.

Sekine N., Ashitani T., Murayama T., Shibutani S., Hattori S., Takahashi K. 2009. “Bioactivity of Latifolin and Its Derivatives Against Termites and Fungi.” Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 57(13):5707-12.

Shreaz S.W., Wani A., Behbehani J.M., Raja V., Irshad M., Karched M., Ali I., Siddiqi W.A., Hun L.T. 2016. “Cinnamaldehyde and Its Derivatives, a Novel Class of Antifungal Agents.” Fitoterapia 112:116-31.

Smith A.L., Campbell C.L., Walker D.B., Hanover J.W. 1989. “Extracts from Black Locust as Wood Preservatives: Extraction of Decay Resistance from Black Locust Heartwood.” Holzforshung 43(5):293-6.

Son, Q.Y., Qi W.Y., Li Z.M., Zhao J., Chen J.J., Gao K. 2011. “Antifungal Activities of Triterpenoids from the Roots of Astilbe myriantha Diels.” Food Chemistry 128:495- 99.

Subhisha, S., Subramoniam A. 2005. “Antifungal Activities of a Steroid from Pallavicinia lyellii, a Liverwort.” Indian Journal of Pharmacology 37(5):304-8.

Tascioglu C., Yalcin M., Sen S., Akcay C. 2013. “Antifungal Properties of some Plant Extracts Used as Wood Preservatives.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 85:23- 8.

Wijayanto A., Dumarçay S., Gérardin-Charbonnier C., Sari R.K., Syafii W., Gérardin P. 2015. “Phenolic and Lipophilic Extractives in Pinus merkusii Jungh. et de Vries Knots and Stemwood.” Industrial Crops and Products 69:466-71.

Wittstock U., Gershenzon J. 2002. “Constitutive Plant Toxins and Their Role in Defense Against Herbivores and Pathogens.” Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5(4):300–7.

Yessoufoua K., Elansary H.O., Mahmoud E.A., Skalicka-Wozniak K. 2015. “Antifungal, Antibacterial and Anticancer Activities of Ficus drupacea L. Stem Bark Extract and Biologically Active Isolated Compounds.” Industrial Crops and Products 74:752- 758.

Zengin H., Ayse H. B. 2014. “Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Terpenes Against Pathogenic and Spoilage-Forming Bacteria and Cell Structure-Activity Relationships Evaluated by SEM Microscopy.” Molecules 19(11):17733-98.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Wood Research Journal

Indexed by:




Copyright ©Wood Research Journal  

    ISSN: 2087-3840,       EISSN: 2774-9320



WRJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License